NEW RELEASE from Brad Pilon, the Bestselling Author of Eat Stop Eat

The Science of Heat for Weight Loss, Performance and Health

New Release

Digital PLUS Paperback*

 $19.99  $10*

Extremely New Topic — In Fact The Research Shows Temperature is a Driving Force in Fat Gain and Loss

Uses No-nonsense Language — It Explains The Science of Exactly WHY the RIGHT Temperature — When used properly — Can Deliver Powerful and Lasting Benefits

The Book on Heat  is the first comprehensive book detailing the amazing link between temperature and weight loss.

This book is the absolute best reference for anyone who wants to understand the surprising role that temperature can play in weight loss, longevity and health.

Brad is a renowned author who specialized in Intermittent Fasting during his postgraduate studies. Based on years of research and experimentation he came up with the Eat Stop Eat method, his best selling book which has sold over 250,000 copies to date.

Now, Brad is focused on exposing the connection between temperature and body weight, and his findings are being released in his newest work, The Book on Heat.

In the pages of The Book on Heat, Brad explains the research* behind some of the surprising effects of Temperature:

  • On making dieting easier
  • On controlling Growth Hormone — the key hormone involved in weight loss
  • On GHRELIN, often called the “Hunger Hormone”
  • On the hormone LEPTIN (strongly linked to hunger and Reducing Abdominal Fat)
  • On MUSCLE GROWTH and Exercise Performance
  • On Improving Metabolism & Energy
  • On controlling the Body’s Inflammation Response
  • On controlling Cleansing & Renewal of The Body At a Cellular Level
  • And much more…

The Book On Heat uses no-nonsense language — It explains the science of exactly WHY the RIGHT Temperature — when used properly — can deliver powerful and lasting benefits…

Listen: when Brad started his research into Intermittent Fasting, he was actually 100% opposed to it. He thought you had to eat every 2-3 hours to reach your weight loss goals. But he had to eat his words when the research became clear.

And now, he’s doing the same thing with Temperature, realizing that temperature plays a pivotal, yet largely ignored role in the control of body weight. This includes facts like:

  • Human metabolism is absolutely influenced by the temperature — in fact the research shows temperature is a driving force in fat gain and loss
  • Exposure to cold can BLUNT the fat loss effects of exercise
  • And how (Surprisingly), a fast metabolism doesn’t always lead to fat loss, in fact in some cases it can lead to fat gain!

All this and more is explained and referenced in Brad’s book, with over 300 references from over 70 years of research.

Yet that’s not all. Because this is an extremely new topic and we want to make sure folks have the most complete and up-to-date information, right now we’re going to do something special… you will receive the early release digital edition PLUS the paperback edition as soon as it prints. That’s right, both the digital and paperback for only $10.

With this exclusive offer, The Book on Heat is now available at a big discount. To get it now at this special price, just use the link on this page to secure the exclusive deal only available for the first print run.

Ahmad, G., Moinard, N., Esquerré-Lamare, C., Mieusset, R., & Bujan, L. (2012). Mild induced testicular and epididymal hyperthermia alters sperm chromatin integrity in men. Fertil Steril., Mar;97(3), 546-53.

Al Sabbah, H., Vereecken, C.A., Elgar, F.J., Nansel, T., Aasvee, K., Abdeen, Z., et al. (2009). Body weight dissatisfaction and communication with parents among adolescents in 24 countries: International crosssectional survey. BMC Public Health, 9, 52-62.

Al-Hilli, F., & Wright, E.A. (1983). The effects of changes in the environmental temperature on the growth of the tail bones in the mouse. Br J Exp Pathol, 64, 34-42.

Alexander, C.M., Kasza, I., Yen, C.L.,, Reeder, S.B., Hernando, D., Gallo, R.L., Jahoda, C.A., Horsley, V., & MacDougald, O.A. (2015). Dermal white adipose tissue: a new component of the thermogenic response. J Lipid Res, Nov;56(11), 2061-9.

Alexander, G. (1979). Cold Thermogenesis. International Review of Physiology, 20, 43-155.

Algars, M., Santtila, P., Jern, P., Johansson, A., Westerlund, M., & Sandnabba, N. K. (2011). Sexual body image and its correlates: A population-based study of finnish women and men. International Journal of Sexual Health, 23(1), 26-34.

Alirezaei, M., Kiosses, W.B., Flynn, C.T., Brady, N.R., Fox, H.S. (2008). Disruption of neuronal autophagy by infected microglia results in neurodegeneration. PLoS ONE, 3, 2906.

Allen, J.A. (1877). The influence of Physical conditions in the genesis of species. Radical Review, 1.108-140.

Amatruda, J.M., Statt, M.C., & Welle, S.L. (1993). Total and resting energy expenditure in obese women reduced to ideal body weight. The Journal of clinical investigation, 92, 1236-1242. [PubMed: 8376583]

Andriotis, K. From nudism and naturism tourism to “natourism”: Defining natourism and exploring natourists. Tourism Analysis, 21, 237-249.

Anthanont, P., & Jensen, M.D. (2016). Does basal metabolic rate predict weight gain? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104, 959-963. [PubMed: 27581474]

Antoine-Jonville, S., El Khoury, D., Faure, C., Charlot, K., Hue, O., Hardy-Dessources, M.D. (2019). Metabolic response to oral glucose tolerance test performed in neutral and warm environmental temperature. Int J Hyperthermia, 36(1), 625-631.

Arens, E. A, & Zhang, H. (2006). The skin’s role in human thermoregulation and comfort. In from Thermal and Moisture Transport in Fibrous MaterialsUC Berkeley: Center for the Built Environment.

Arney, K. (2003). Head lice key to clothing history BBC News.

Ashoub, M.A. (1958). Effect of two extreme temperatures on growth and tail-length of mice. Nature 181, 284.

Au-Yong, I.T., Thorn, N., Ganatra, R., Perkins, A.C., & Symonds, M.E. (2009). Brown adipose tissue and seasonal variation in humans. Diabetes, 58(11), 2583-7.

Barcan, R. (2004). Nudity: A Cultural Anatomy, Oxford University Press, New York.

Baron, A.D., Steinberg, H., Brechtel, G., & Johnson, A. (1994). Skeletal muscle blood flow independently modulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Am J Physiol. Feb; 266(2 Pt 1), 248-53.8.

Bayon, V., Leger, D., Gomez-Merino, D., Vecchierini, M.F., Chennaoui, M. (2014, August). Sleep debt and obesity. Ann Med, 46(5), 264-72.

Bedno, S.A., Li, Y., Han, W., Cowan, D.N., Scott, C.T., Cavicchia, M.A., & Niebuhr, D.W. (2010, Feb). Exertional heat illness among overweight U.S. Army recruits in basic training. Aviat Space Environ Med, 81(2), 107-11.

Bedno, S.A., Urban, N., Boivin, M.R, & Cowan, D.N. (2014, Sept). Fitness, obesity and risk of heat illness among army trainees. Occup Med (Lond), 64(6), 461-7.

Beller, A.S. (1977). Fat and Thin: A Natural History of Obesity. New York: Farrar Straus, & Giroux.  

Bellward, K., & Dauncey, M.J. (1988). Behavioural energy regulation in lean and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. Physiology & behavior, 42(5), 433-438.

Bennett, A.F. (1984). Thermal dependence of muscle function. Am J Physiol 247, 217-229.

Bergmann, C. (1847). Über die Verhältnisse der wärmeökonomie der Thiere zu ihrer Grösse. Göttinger Studien, 3, 595-708.

Bernhard, M.C., Li, P., Allison, D.B., & Gohlke, J.M. (2015, August). Warm Ambient Temperature Decreases Food Intake in a Simulated Office Setting: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Nutr. 24, 2-20.

Biddle, J. (2008). Explaining the spread of residential air conditioning, 1955–1980. Expl. Econ. Hist. 45, 402-423.

Blauw, L.L., Aziz, N.A., Tannemaat, M.R., Blauw, C.A., de Craen, A.J., Pijl, H., & Rensen, P.C. (2017). Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, 5(1), e000317.

Blüher, S., & Mantzoros, C.S. (2009). Leptin in humans: lessons from translational research. Am J Clin Nutr, 89(3), 991S-997S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26788E

Bouillon, R., Bischoff-Ferrari, H., & Willett, W. (2008) Vitamin D and health: perspectives from mice and man. J Bone Miner Res, 23(7), 974-979.

Braga, A.L., Zanobetti, A., & Schwartz, J. (2002). The effect of weather on respiratory and cardiovascular deaths in 12 U.S. cities. Environ Health Perspect, 110(9), 859-63.

Brobeck J.R. (1948, July). Food intake as a mechanism of temperature regulation. Yale J Biol Med, 20(6), 545-52.

Brundin, T., Thörne, A., & Wahren, J. (1992, January). Heat leakage across the abdominal wall and meal-induced thermogenesis in normal-weight and obese subjects. Metabolism, 41(1), 49-55.

Brychta, R.J., Huang, S., Wang, J., et al. (2019). Quantification of the Capacity for Cold-Induced Thermogenesis in Young Men With and Without Obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 104(10), 4865-4878.

Buskirk, E.R., Thompson, R.H., & Whedon, G.D. (1963). Metabolic response to cold air in men and women in relation to total body fat content. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 18(3):603-612

Buskirk, E. R. (1978). Cold Stress: A Selective Review. Environmental Stress: Individual Human Adaptation. N.Y. Academic Press, 249-266.

Buskirk, E. R., Thompson, R. H., & Whedon, G. D. (1963). Metabolic Response to Cooling in the Human: Role of Body Composition and Particularly of Body Fat. Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, vol. 3, pt. 3, Biology and Medicine, J. D. Hardy, ed., 429-442.

Cammisotto, P., & Bendayan, M. (2012, March). A review on gastric leptin: the exocrine secretion of a gastric hormone. Anat Cell Biol, 45(1), 1-16.

Cannon, B., & Nedergaard, J.. (2004). Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev, 84, 277-359.

Capita, R., & Alonso-Calleja, C. (2005, September). Differences in reported winter and summer dietary intakes in young adults in Spain. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 56(6), 431-43.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Barriers to children walking to or from school — United States, 2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report54, 949-952.

Cepeda, M., Muka, T., Ikram, M.A., Franco, O.H., & Schoufour, J.D. (2018, March). Seasonality of Insulin Resistance, Glucose, and Insulin Among Middle-Aged and Elderly Population: The Rotterdam Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 103(3), 946-955.

Chaffee, R.R., & Roberts, J.C. (1971). Temperature acclimation in birds and mammals. Annu Rev Physiol, 33, 155–202. [PubMed: 4951049]

Chen, K.Y., Brychta, R.J., Linderman, J.D., et al. (2013). Brown fat activation mediates cold-induced thermogenesis in adult humans in response to a mild decrease in ambient temperature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 98, E1218–E1223.

Cheng, A.J., Willis, S.J., Zinner, C., et al. (2017). Post-exercise recovery of contractile function and endurance in humans and mice is accelerated by heating and slowed by cooling skeletal muscle. J Physiol, 595(24), 7413-7426. doi:10.1113/JP274870

Chung, N.K., & Pin, C.H. (1996, December). Obesity and the occurrence of heat disorders. Mil Med, 161(12), 739-42.Clark, R.P., & Edholm, O.G. (1985) Man and his thermal environment. Edward Arnold, London.

Clark, K. (1956). The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form, Princeton University Press.

Collipal, E.L., & Godoy, M.P. (2015). Social representations of obesity in pre-university and university youth. Int J Morphol, 33, 877-82.

Corpas, E., Harman, S.M., & Blackman, M.R. (1993). Human growth hormone and human aging. Endocrine Reviews, 14, 20-39.

Costello, J.T., Baker, P.R., Minett, G.M., Bieuzen, F., Stewart, I.B., & Bleakley, C. (2015). Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (9), CD010789. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010789.pub2

Crabtree, D.R., & Blannin, A.K. (2015). Effects of exercise in the cold on Ghrelin, PYY, and food intake in overweight adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, 47, 49-57.

Craig, E.A. (1984). The heat shock response. Critical Rev Biochem, 18, 239-80.

Cuervo, A.M., Bergamini, E., Brunk, U.T., Droge, W., Ffrench, M., Terman, A. (2005) Autophagy and aging: the importance of maintaining ‘‘clean’’ cells. Autophagy, 1(3), 131-140.

Curioni, C.C., & Lourenço, P.M. (2005). Long-term weight loss after diet and exercise: a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond), 29(10), 1168-1174.

Cypess, A.M., Lehman, S., Williams, G., et al. (2009). Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N Engl J Med, 360, 1509-1517.

Daanen, H.A.M., Racinais, S., & Périard, J.D. (2018). Heat Acclimation Decay and Re-Induction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med48(2), 409-430.

Daly, M. (2014, March). Association of ambient indoor temperature with body mass index in England. Obesity, 22(3), 626-9.

Davis, T.R. (1964). The influence of climate on nutritional requirements. Am J Public Health Nations Health, 54, 2051-2067.

De Leonibus, C., Chatelain, P., Knight, C., Clayton, P., & Stevens, A. (2016). Effect of summer daylight exposure and genetic background on growth in growth hormone-deficient children. The Pharmacogenomics Journal16, 540-550.

Deemer, S.E., Castleberry, T.J., Irvine, C., et al. (2018). Pilot study: an acute bout of high intensity interval exercise increases 12.5 h GH secretion. Physiol Rep, 6(2):e13563. doi:10.14814/phy2.13563.

Denzer, C.M., & Young, J.C. (2003, September). The effect of resistance exercise on the thermic effect of food. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13 (3), 396-402.

Dervis, S., Coombs, G.B., Chaseling, G.K., Filingeri, D., Smoljanic, J., & Jay, O. (2016). A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 120(6), 615-23.

Deter, R.L., & De Duve, C. (1967). Influence of glucagon, an inducer of cellular autophagy, on some physical  properties of rat liver lysosomes. J Cell Biol, 33, 437l-449.

Dietz, J., & Schwartz, J. (1991). Growth hormone alters lipolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase activity in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Metabolism, 40, 800–806.

Ding, W.X. (2011, May). The emerging role of autophagy in alcoholic liver disease.  Exp Biol Med 1, 546-556.

Doi, K., Ohno, T., Kurahashi, M., & Kuroshima, A. (1979). Thermoregulatory Nonshivering Thermogenesis in Men, with Special Reference to Lipid Metabolism. Jpn. J. Physiol, 29, 359-372.

Ebling, F.J. (2015, April). Hypothalamic control of seasonal changes in food intake and body weight. Front Neuroendocrinol, 37, 97-107.

Ellis, F.P. (1976). Heat illness. I. Epidemiology. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 70(5-6), 402-11.

Elsner, P., Hatch, K. & Wigger-Alberti W.(Eds). Karger Verlag. (2002). Problems in Dermatology. Basel, 31, 35-39.

Ely, B.R., Clayton, Z.S., McCurdy, C.E., Pfeiffer, J., & Minson, C.T. (2018). Meta-inflammation and cardiometabolic disease in obesity: Can heat therapy help?, Temperature, 5(1), 9-21

Ergün, S.S., et al. (2015, July). Correction of Brassiere Strap Grooves with Fat Injections. Aesthet Surg J, 35(5), 561-564.

Ergün S.S., Gayretl,i Ö., Kayan, R.B. (2014, April). Brassiere strap groove deformity: definition and classification. Aesthetic Plast Surg, 38(2), 350-3.

Erikson, H., Krog, J., Andersen, K.L., & Scholander, P.F. (1956, July). The critical temperature in naked man. Acta Physiol Scand, 37(1), 35-9.

Kim, E.J., Kim, Y.K., Kim, J.E., Kim, S., Kim, M.K., Park, C.H., & Chung, J.H.. (2011). UV Modulation of Subcutaneous Fat Metabolism. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 131(8), 1720-1726.

Farnworth, B. (1992, November).  Materials and clothing design; Proceedings of the 5th int. conf. on environmental ergonomics, Maastricht, W.A.Lotens and G. Havenith.

Fehrenbach, E., Niess, A.M., Veith, R., Dickhuth, H.H., & Northoff, H. (2001) Changes of HSP72-expression in leukocytes are associated with adaptation to exercise under conditions of high environ- mental temperature. J Leukoc Biol, 69, 747-754.

Finkelstein, J.W., Roffwarg, H.P., Boyar, R.M., Kream, J., & Hellman, L. (1972, November). Age-related change in the twenty-four-hour spontaneous secretion of growth hormone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism35(5), 665-70.

Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L., & Curtin, L.R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999-2008. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303, 235-241.

Freedman D.M., Dosemeci M., & McGlynn K. (2002). Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate and non-melanoma skin cancer: A composite death certificate based case-control study. Occup. Environ. Med, 59, 257-262.

Frewin, D.B., Frantz, A.G., & Downey, J.A. (1976, February). The effect of ambient temperature on the growth hormone and prolactin response to exercise. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci, 54(1), 97-101.

Fuchs, C.J., Kouw, I.W.K., Churchward-Venne, T.A., et al. (2020). Postexercise cooling impairs muscle protein synthesis rates in recreational athletes. J Physiol, 598(4), 755-772.

Gagge, A.P., Stolwijk, J.A., & Hardy, J.D. (1967, June). Comfort and thermal sensations and associated physiological responses at various ambient temperatures. Environ Res, 1(1), 1-20.

Gallagher, R.P, & Lee, T.K. (2006). Adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation: A brief review. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol, 92, 119-131.

Gao, Q., Luan, D., Wang, X., Xin, S., Liu, Y., & Li, J. (2018). Effect of sun exposure on cognitive function among elderly individuals in Northeast China. Clin Interv Aging, 13, 2075-2082.

Geldenhuys., S., Hart, P.H., Endersby, R., Jacoby, P., Feelisch, M., Weller, R.B., Matthews, V., & Gorman, S.  (2014, November). Ultraviolet radiation suppresses obesity and symptoms of metabolic syndrome independently of vitamin D in mice fed a high-fat diet. Diabetes, 63(11), 3759-69.

Gibson, O.R., Dennis, A., Parfitt, T., Taylor, L., Watt, P.W., & Maxwell, N.S. (2014). Extracellular Hsp72 concentration relates to a minimum endogenous criteria during acute exercise-heat exposure. Cell Stress Chaperones, 19, 389-400.

Gilbert, R., Metcalfe, C., Oliver, S.E., Whiteman, D.C., Bain, C., Ness, A., Donovan, J., Hamdy, F., Neal, D.E., Lane, J.A., et al. (2009). Life course sun exposure and risk of prostate cancer: Population-based nested case-control study (protect) and meta-analysis. Int. J. Cancer, 125, 1414-1423.

Gladwin, T. (1949) Climate and anthropology. Am Anthropol 49, 601-611.3.

Gleeson, M., Bishop, N.C., Stensel, D.J., Lindley, M.R., Mastana, S.S., & Nimmo, M.A. (2011). The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nat Rev, 11, 607–615.

Goto, K., et al. (2007). Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Induced by Low-Intensity Exercise with Heat-Stress in Healthy Human Subjects. 宇宙航空環境医学 , 44(1), 13-18.

Greenleaf, J.E. Acclimatization to Heat in Humans. NASA Technical Memorandum 101 01 1

Gupte, A.A., Bomhoff, G.L., Touchberry, C.D., & Geiger, P.C. (2011, February). Acute heat treatment improves insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in aged skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 110(2), 451-7.

Guy, J.H., Deakin, G.B., Edwards, A.M., Miller, C.M., & Pyne, D.B. (2015, March). Adaptation to hot environmental conditions: an exploration of the performance basis, procedures and future directions to optimise opportunities for elite athletes.Sports Med, 45(3), 303-11.

Guyton, A.C., & Hall, J.E. (2000). Textbook of Medical Physiology, London, New York, W.B. Saunders Company.

Hall, M.N. (2008). mTOR-what does it do? Transplant Proc, 40, S5-8.

Halonen, J.I., Zanobetti, A., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P.S., & Schwartz, J. (2010, July). Associations between outdoor temperature and markers of inflammation: a cohort study. Environ Health, 9, 42. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-9-42

Haluza, D., Schönbauer, R., & Cervinka, R. (2014, May). Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 11(5), 5445-61.

Hanna, J.M., Little, M.A., Austin, D.A. (1989) Climate and Physiology. Human Population Biology: a transdisciplinary science.Oxford: Oxford University Press. 132-151.

Hansen, J.C., Gilman, A.P., & Odland, J.Ø. (2010, August). Is thermogenesis a significant causal factor in preventing the “globesity” epidemic? Med Hypotheses, 75(2), 250-6.

Hansmann, R., Hug, S., & Seeland, K. (2007). Restoration and Stress Relief through Physical Activities in Forests and Parks. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6(4), 213-225.

Hanssen, M.J., Hoeks, J., Brans, B., van der Lans, A.A., Schaart, G., van den Driessche, J.J., Jörgensen, J.A., Boekschoten, M.V., Hesselink, M.K., Havekes, B., Kersten, S., Mottaghy, F.M., van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D., & Schrauwen, P.  (2015, August). Short-term cold acclimation improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Med,  21(8), 863-5.

Hany, T.F., Gharehpapagh, E., Kamel, E.M., Buck, A., Himms-Hagen, J., & von Schulthess, G.K. (2002). Brown adipose tissue: a factor to consider in symmetrical tracer uptake in the neck and upper chest region. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 29, 1393-1398.

Hara, T., et al. (2006). Suppression of basal autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice. Nature, 441, 885-9.

Hart, E., Leary, M.R., & Rekeski, W.J. (1989). The measurement of social physique anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 11, 94-104.

Harte, J.L., & Eifert, G.H. (1995, January). The effects of running, environment, and attentional focus on athletes’ catecholamine and cortisol levels and mood. Psychophysiology, 32(1), 49-54.

Havenith, G. (2003). Clothing and Thermoregulation. Textiles and the Skin. Karger Publishers.

Havenith, G. (1999). Heat Balance when Wearing Protective Clothing. Ann. Occup. Hyg, 43, 5, 289-296.

Healy, S. (2008). Air-conditioning and the ‘homogenization’ of people and built environments. Build Res Inf, 36(4),312.

Heaton, G.M., Wagenvoord, R.J., Kemp, A. Jr., & Nicholls, D.G. (1978, Jan). Brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria: photoaffinity labelling of the regulatory site of energy dissipation. Eur J Biochem, 82(2), 515-21.

Hemingway, A. (1963). Shivering. Physiol. Rev., 43, 397-422.

Herbozo, S., & Thompson, J. K. (2006). Appearance-related commentary, body image, and self-esteem: Does the distress associated with the commentary matter? Body Image, 3(3), 255-262.

Hermanussen, M., Geiger-Benoit, K., Burmeister, J., & Sippell, W.G. (1988). Periodical changes of short term growth velocity (‘mini growth spurts’) in human growth. Ann Hum Biol, 15, 103-109.

Herrington, L.P. (1940). The heat regulation of small laboratory animals at various environmental temperatures. Am J Physiol, 129, 123-139.

Hersoug, L.G., Sjödin, A., & Astrup, A. (2012, March). A proposed potential role for increasing atmospheric CO2 as a promoter of weight gain and obesity. Nutr Diabetes, 5(2), e31.

Higginson, A.D., McNamara, J.M. & Houston, A.I. (2012) The starvation-predation trade-off predicts trends in body size, muscularity, and adiposity between and within Taxa. The American Naturalist, 179(3), 338-50.

Hughson, R.L., Green, H.J., Houston, M.E., Thomson, J.A., MacLean, R.D., & Sutton, J.R. (1980). Heat injuries in Canadian mass participation runs. CMAJ, 122, 1141-4.

Hussain, J., & Cohen, M. (2018). Clinical Effects of Regular Dry Sauna Bathing: A Systematic Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 1857413. doi:10.1155/2018/1857413

Huttunen, P., Hirvonen, J., & Kinnula, V. The occurrence of brown adipose tissue in outdoor workers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 46(4), 339-345.

Iampietro, P.F., Vaughan, J.A., Goldman, R.F., Kreider, M.B., Masucci, F., & Bass, D.E. (1960). Heat Production from Shivering. J. Appl. Physiol., 15(4), 632-634.

Ihsan, M., Deldicque, L., Molphy, J., Britto, F., Cherif, A., & Racinais, S. (2020). Skeletal Muscle Signaling Following Whole-Body and Localized Heat Exposure in Humans. Front Physiol, 11, 839. doi:10.3389/fphys.2020.00839

Jacobs, J.M., Cohen, A., Hammerman-Rozenberg, R., Azoulay, D., Maaravi, Y., & Stessman, J. (2008, April). Going outdoors daily predicts long-term functional and health benefits among ambulatory older people. J Aging Health. 20(3), 259-72.

James, R.S. (2013). A review of the thermal sensitivity of the mechanics of vertebrate skeletal muscle. J Comp Physiol, B183, 723-733.

James, R.S., & Tallis, J. (2020). The likely effects of thermal climate change on vertebrate skeletal muscle mechanics with possible consequences for animal movement and behaviour, Conservation Physiology, 7(1), coz066.

James, R.S., Tallis, J., Herrel, A., & Bonneaud, C. (2012). Warmer is better: thermal sensitivity of both maximal and sustained power output in the ili-otibialis muscle isolated from adult Xenopus tropicalis. J Exp Biol, 215, 552-558.

Jansky, L. (1965).  Adaptability of Heat Production Mechanisms in Homeotherms. Acta Univ. Carol. Biol, 1, 1-95.

Jezová, D., Kvetnanský, R., Nazar, K., & Vigas, M. (1998, Jul-Aug). Enhanced neuroendocrine response to insulin tolerance test performed under increased ambient temperature. J Endocrinol Invest, 21(7), 412-7.

John, E.M., Scwartz, G.G., Koo, J., Wang, W., & Ingles, S.A. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population. Am. J. Epidemiol, 166, 1409-1419.

Johnson, R.E., & Kark, R.M. (1947, April) Environment and Food Intake in Man. Science, 105(2728), 378-9.

Kaiser, R., Rubin, C.H., Henderson, A.K., Wolfe, M.I., Kieszak, S., Parrott, C.L., & Adcock, M. (2001). Heat-related death and mental illness during the 1999 Cincinnati heat wave. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 22(3), 303-7.

Kakigi, R., Naito, H., Ogura, Y., Kobayashi, H., Saga, N., Ichinoseki-Sekine, N., Yoshihara, T., & Katamoto, S. (2011). Heat stress enhances mTOR signaling after resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol Sci, 61, 131-140.

Kang, S.M., Shaver, P. R., Sue, S., Min, K.-H., & Jing, H. (2003). Culture-specific patterns in the prediction of life satisfaction: Roles of emotion, relationship quality, and self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(12), 1596-1608.

Keatinge, W.R. (1967). Survival in Cold Water: The Physiology and Treatment of Immersion Hypothermia and Drowning. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford and Edinburgh.

Keith, S.W., Redden, D.T., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Boggiano, M.M., Hanlon, E.C., Benca, R.M., Ruden, D., Pietrobelli, A., Barger, J.L., Fontaine, K.R., Wang, C., Aronne, L.J., Wright, S.M., Baskin, M., Dhurandhar, N.V., Lijoi, M.C., Grilo, C.M., DeLuca, M., Westfall, A.O., & Allison, D.B. (2006, Nov). Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less traveled. Int J Obes, 30(11), 1585-94.

Kenefick, R.W., Maresh, C.M., Armstrong, L.E., et al. (1998). Plasma testosterone and cortisol responses to training-intensity exercise in mild and hot environments. Int J Sports Med, 19(3), 177-181. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971900

Kerr, J., Marshall, S., Godbole, S., Neukam, S., Crist, K., Wasilenko, K., Golshan, S., & Buchner, D. (2012, December). The relationship between outdoor activity and health in older adults using GPS. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 9(12), 4615-25.

Kift, R., Rhodes, L.E., Farrar, M.D., & Webb, A.R. (2018, Aug). Is Sunlight Exposure Enough to Avoid Wintertime Vitamin D Deficiency in United Kingdom Population Groups? Int J Environ Res Public Health, 15(8), 1624.

King, J.A., Miyashita, M., Wasse, L.K., & Stensel, D.J. (2010, June). Influence of prolonged treadmill running on appetite, energy intake and circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin. Appetite, 54(3), 492-8.

Kingma, B., Frijns, A., & van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. (2012, Jan). The thermoneutral zone: implications for metabolic studies. Front Biosci (Elite Ed), 4, 1975-85.

Kingma, B.R.M., Frijns, A.J.H., Schellen, L., & Marken Lichtenbelt, van, W.D. (2014). Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone : including thermal comfort. Temperature, 1(2), 142-149.

Kirkegaard, K., Taylor, M.P., & Jackson, W.T. (2004). Cellular autophagy: surrender, avoidance and subversion by microorganisms, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2, 301-314.

Kleiber M. (1961). The Fire of Life. An introduction to animal energetics. Wiley, New York.

Koh, G.C., Hawthorne, G., Turner, A.M., Kunst, H., & Dedicoat, M. (2013). Tuberculosis incidence correlates with sunshine: An ecological 28-year time series study. PLoS ONE, 8, 999.

Koivisto, V.A. (1980). Sauna-induced acceleration in insulin absorption from subcutaneous injection site. Br Med J280(6229), 1411-1413. doi:10.1136/bmj.280.6229.1411

Kojima, C., Kasai, N., Kondo, C., Ebi, K., Goto, K. (2018). Post-Exercise Whole Body Cryotherapy (-140 °C) Increases Energy Intake in Athletes. Nutrients, 10(7), 893.

Kojima, C., Sasaki, H., Tsuchiya, Y., & Goto, K. (2015). The influence of environmental temperature on appetite-related hormonal responses. J Physiol Anthropol, 34(1), 22. doi:10.1186/s40101-015-0059-1

Kojima, M., & Kangawa, K. (2005). Ghrelin: structure and function. Physiol Rev. 85(2):495-522.

Komatsu, M., et al. (2006). Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice. Nature, 441, 880-4.

Korpela, K.M., Ylén, M., Tyrväinen, L., & Silvennoinen, H. (2008). Determinants of restorative experiences in everyday favorite places. Health Place, 14(4), 636-52.

Koshinaka, K., Kawamoto, E., Abe, N., Toshinai, K., Nakazato, M., Kawanaka, K. (2013). Elevation of muscle temperature stimulates muscle glucose uptake in vivo and in vitro. J Physiol Sci, 63(6), 409-1.

Kovats, R.S., & Hajat, S. (2008). Heat stress and public health: A critical review. Annu Rev Public Health 29, 41-55.

Kreiss, K. (1989). The Epidemiology of Building Related Complaints and Illness. Occ. Med. State Art Rev, 4:575-592.

Kricker, A., Armstrong, B.K., Hughes, A.M., Goumas, C., Smedby, E., Zheng, T., Spinelli, J.J., De Sanjose, S., Hartge, P., Melbye, M., et al. (2008). Personal sun exposure and risk of non hodgkin lymphoma: A pooled analysis from the interlymph consortium. Int. J. Cancer, 122, 144-154.

Kunutsor, S.K., Khan, H., Zaccardi, F., Laukkanen, T., Willeit, P., & Laukkanen, J.A. (2018). Sauna bathing reduces the risk of stroke in Finnish men and women. Neurology, 90(22), e1937-e1944.

Kunutsor, S.K., Laukkanen, T., & Laukkanen, J.A. (2017). Sauna bathing reduces the risk of respiratory diseases: a long-term prospective cohort study. Eur J Epidemiol, 32(12), 1107-1111.

Laing, S.J., Jackson, A.R., Walters, R., Lloyd-Jones, E., Whitham, M., Maassen, N., & Walsh, N.P. (2008). Human blood neutrophil responses to prolonged exercise with and without a thermal clamp. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md 1985), 104, 20-26.

Lambert, B.S., Miller, K.E., Delgado, D.A., et al. (2020). Acute Physiologic Effects of Performing Yoga in The Heat on Energy Expenditure, Range of Motion, and Inflammatory Biomarkers. Int J Exerc Sci, 13(3), 802-817.

Lampl, M., Veldhuis, J.D., & Johnson, M.L. (1992). Saltation and stasis: a model of human growth. Science, 258, 801-803.

Land, C., Blum, W.F., Stabrey, A., & Schoenau, E. (2005). Seasonality of growth response to GH therapy in prepubertal children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency. Eur JEndocrinol, 152, 727-733.

Langeveld, M., Tan, C.Y., Soeters, M.R., et al. (2016). Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans. Endocr Connect, 5(2), 65-73. doi:10.1530/EC-16-0004

Laukkanen, J.A., & Laukkanen, T. (2018). Sauna bathing and systemic inflammation. Eur J Epidemiol 33, 351-353.

Laukkanen, T., Khan, H., Zaccardi, F., & Laukkanen, J.A. (2015).  Association Between Sauna Bathing and Fatal Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Events. JAMA Intern Med 175(4), 542-548.

Laukkanen, T., Kunutsor, S., Kauhanen, J., & Laukkanen, J.A. (2016). Sauna bathing is inversely associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged Finnish men, Age and Ageing46(2), 245-249.

Laurie, A. (1981). The  language of  clothes. New  York: Holt.

Lazzeroni, M., Serrano, D., Pilz, S., & Gandini, S. (2013). Vitamin D supplementation and cancer: review of randomized controlled trials.  Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 13(1), 118-25.

Lee, H., & Choi, S.J. (2018). Mild Hyperthermia-Induced Myogenic Differentiation in Skeletal Muscle Cells: Implications for Local Hyperthermic Therapy for Skeletal Muscle Injury. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018, 2393570. doi:10.1155/2018/2393570

Lee, P., Smith, S., Linderman, J., Courville, A.B., Brychta, R.J., Dieckmann, W., Werner, C.D., Chen, K.Y., & Celi, F.S. (2014). Temperature-acclimated brown adipose tissue modulates insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes, 63(11): 3686-3698.

Leppäluoto, J., Korhonen, I., Huttunen, P., & Hassi, J. (1988). Serum levels of thyroid and adrenal hormones, testosterone, TSH, LH, GH and prolactin in men after a 2-h stay in a cold room. Acta Physiol Scand, 132(4), 543-8.

Levine, B. (2005). Eating oneself and uninvited guests: autophagy-related pathways in cellular defense. Cell 120, 159-162.

Lewinski, J. (1987). The naked and the nude: A history of the nude in photographs, 1839 to the present. New York, Harmony.

Liechty, J. M. (2010). Body image distortion and three types of weight loss behaviors among nonoverweight girls in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(2), 176-182.

Luke, A., Durazo-Arvizu, R., Cao, G., Adeyemo, A., Tayo, B., & Cooper, R. (2006). Positive association between resting energy expenditure and weight gain in a lean adult population. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 83, 1076-1081.

Ogawa, M., & Sasakawa, C. (2006). Bacterial evasion of the autophagic defense system. Curr. Opin. Microbiol, 9, 62-68.

Ma, Y., Olendzki, B.C., Li, W., Hafner, A.R., Chiriboga, D., Hebert, J.R., Campbell, M., Sarnie, M., & Ockene, I.S. (2006). Seasonal variation in food intake, physical activity, and body weight in a predominantly overweight population. Eur J Clin Nutr, 60(4), 519-28.

Maas, J., Verheij, R.A., de Vries, S., Spreeuwenberg, P., Schellevis, F.G., & Groenewegen, P.P. (2009). Morbidity is related to a green living environment. J Epidemiol Community Health, 63(12), 967-73.

Macari, M., Dauncey, M.J., & Ingram, D.L. (1983). Changes in Food Intake in Response to Alterations in the Ambient Temperature: Modifications by Previous Thermal and Nutritional Experience. Pfliigers Arch, 396, 231-237.

Macey, S.M., & Schneider, D.F. (1993). Deaths from excessive heat and excessive cold among the elderly. Gerontologist 33(4), 497-500.

Maeda, T., Mimori, K., Suzuki, S., Horiuchi, T., & Makino, N. (2018). Preventive and promotive effects of habitual hot spa-bathing on the elderly in Japan. Sci Rep, 8, 133.

Maley, M.J., Hunt, A.P., Stewart, I.B., Faulkner, S.H., & Minett, G.M. (2019). Passive heating and glycaemic control in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 14(3), e0214223.

Malterud, K., & Ulriksen, K. (2010). Norwegians fear fatness more than anything else: a qualitative study of normative newspaper messages on obesity and health. Patient Education and Counselling, 81, 47-52.

Manning, C. VIRTUES OF NAKEDNESS Physical & Psychological Health. Clothed with the Sun, 7.3, 25ff.

Mantler, A., & Logan, A.C. (2015). Natural Environments and Mental Health. Adv. Integr. Med, 2, 5-12.

Mayer, F.S., McPherson-Frantz C., Bruehlman-Senecal E., & Dolliver K. (2009). Why is Nature Beneficial? The Role of Connectedness to Nature. Environ. Behav, 41, 307-643.

McCreary, D.R., & Sasse, D.K. (2000). Exploring the drive for muscularity in adolescent boys and girls. Journal of American College Health, 48, 297-304.

McGuire, M.T., Wing, R.R., Klem, M.L., & Hill, J.O. (1999). Behavioral strategies of individuals who have maintained long-term weight losses. Obes Res, 7(4), 334-41.

McIntyre, D.A. (1980) Indoor climate. Applied Science Publishers, London.

McMinn, J.E., Liu, S.M., Liu, H., Dragatsis, I., Dietrich, P., Ludwig, T., Boozer, C.N., & Chua, S. C., Jr. (2005) Neuronal deletion of Leptr elicits diabesity in mice without affecting cold tolerance or fertility. Am.J.Physiol.Endocrinol.Metab. 289, E403-E411.

Mead, N.M. (2008). Benefits of Sunlight: A Bright Spot for Human Health. Environ Health Perspect, 116(4), A160-A167.

Miller, J.W., Harvey, D.J., Beckett, L.A., Green, R., Farias, S.T., Reed, B.R., Olichney, J.M., Mungas, D.M., & DeCarli, C. (2015). Vitamin D Status and Rates of Cognitive Decline in a Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults. JAMA Neurol, 72(11), 1295-303.

Miller, S. (2003). The organization and functioning of the Olympic Games. In D.J. Philips & Pritchard, D. (Eds), Sport and festival in the Ancient Greek world (pp. 1-41). Swansea: Classical Press of Wales.

Mizushima, N., Levine, B., Cuervo, A.M., & Klionsky, D.J. (2008). Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion. Nature, 451, 1069-75.

Moran, D.S., & Mendal, L. (2002). Core temperature measurement: methods and  current insights. Sports Med, 32, 879-85.

Mount, L.E. (1968). The Climatic Physiology of the Pig. Monographs of the Physiol. Soc, 18.

Muller, G., Ertl, J., & Gerl, M. (1997).  Preibisch G. Leptin impairs metabolic actions of insulin in isolated rat  adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 272, 10585-10593.

Nakamura, M., Yoshida, T., Kiyono, R. et al. (2019). The effect of low-intensity resistance training after heat stress on muscle size and strength of triceps brachii: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 20, 603.

Navarro, R. L., Ojeda, L., Schwartz, S. J., Pin˜a-Watson, B., & Luna, L. L. (2014). Cultural self, personal self: Links with life satisfaction among Mexican American college students. Journal of Latinao Psychology, 2(1), 1-20.

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (2016). Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: A pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants. Lancet, 387(10026),1377-96.

Nedergaard, J., Bengtsson, T., & Cannon, B. (2007). Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 293, E444-E452.

Newman, M.T. (1953). The application of ecological rules to the racial anthropology of the Aboriginal New World. Am Anthropol, 55, 311–327.

Norrelund, H., Rils, A.L., & Moller, N. (2002). Effects of GH on protein metabolism during dietary restriction in man. Growth hormone & IGF Research, 12, 198-207.

Norrelund, H. (2001). The protein-retaining effects of growth hormone during fasting involve inhibition of muscle- protein breakdown. Diabetes 50, 96-104.

Obrador-Pons, P.  (2007). A haptic geography of the beach: Naked bodies, vision and touch. Social and Cultural Geography, 8(1), 123, 141.

Odegaard, J.I., & Chawla, A. (2013). Pleiotropic actions of insulin resistance and inflammation in metabolic homeostasis. Science, 339(6116),172-7.

Ogden, C., & Carroll, M. (2010a). Prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents: United States, trends 1963-1965 through 2007-2008. (PDF, 158KB) Atlanta, Ga.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.

Ogden, C., & Carroll, M. (2010b). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-1962 through 2007-2008. (PDF, 203KB) Atlanta, Ga.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.

Oishi, S., Diener, E. F., Lucas, R. E., & Suh, E. M. (1999). Cross-cultural variations in predictors of life satisfaction: Perspectives from needs and values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(8), 980-990.

Oksa, J., Rintamäki, H., Mäkinen, T., Martikkala, V., & Rusko, H. (1996). EMG-activity and muscular performance of lower leg during stretch-shortening cycle after cooling. Acta Physiol Scand, 157(1),1-8.

Oliver, R.A., Johnson, D.J., Wheelhouse, W.W., & Griffin, P.P. (1979). Isometric muscle contraction response during recovery from reduced intramuscular temperature. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 60(3), 126-9.

Ondrusova, K., Fatehi, M., Barr, A., Czarnecka, Z., Long, W., Suzuki, K., Campbell, S., Philippaert, K., Hubert, M., Tredget, E., Kwan, P., Touret, N., Wabitsch, M., Lee, K.Y., & Light, P.E. (2017). Subcutaneous white adipocytes express a light sensitive signaling pathway mediated via a melanopsin/TRPC channel axis. Sci Rep, 7(1),16332.

Orvedahl, A., & Levine, B. (2009). Eating the enemy within: autophagy in infectious diseases. Cell Death Differ, 16, 57-69.

Ostro, B.D., Roth, L.A., Green, R.S., & Basu, R. (2009). Estimating the mortality effect of the July 2006 California heat wave. Environ Res, 109(5), 614-9.

Pandolf, K.B. (1998). Time course of heat acclimation and its decay. Int J Sports Med, 2, S157-60.

Park, H.J., Lee, D.-G., & Yang, N. M. (2014). Life satisfaction in middle-aged Koreans: Mediating effects of domain-specific self-esteem satisfaction, and sex differences. Psychological Reports, 115(1), 213–227.

Pasanen, T.P., Tyrväinen, L., & Korpela, K.M. (2014). The Relationship between Perceived Health and Physical Activity Indoors, Outdoors in Built Environments, and Outdoors in Nature. Appl Psychol Health Well Being, 6(3), 324-346.

Peake, J.M. (2020). Independent, corroborating evidence continues to accumulate that post-exercise cooling diminishes muscle adaptations to strength training. J Physiol, 598(4), 625-626.

Pelegrini, A., & Petroski, E. (2010). The association between body dissatisfaction and nutritional status in adolescents. Human Movement, 11(1), 51-57.

Petersen, A.M., & Pedersen, B.K. (2005). The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol, 98,1154-1162.

Pittas, A.G, Sun, Q., Manson, J.E., Dawson-Hughes, B., & Hu, F.B. (2010). Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in women.  Diabetes Care. 33(9), 2021-3.

Périard, J.D., Racinais, S., & Sawka, M.N. (2015).Adaptations and mechanisms of human heat acclimation: Applications for competitive athletes and sports. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 25(1):20-38.

Racinais, S., & Oksa, J. (2010). Temperature and neuromuscular function. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20(3), 1-18.

Rall, J.A., & Woledge, R.C. (1990) Influence of temperature on mechanics and energetics of muscle contraction. Am J Physiol, 259, R197-R203.

Ravussin, E., Lillioja, S., Anderson, T.E., Christin, L., & Bogardus, C. (1986). Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber. J Clin Invest, 78(6), 1568-78.

Razzouk, N., & Seitz, V. (2003). Nude Recreation in the U. S.: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing 10(3-4),145-157.

Re, D., Coetzee, V., & Xiao, D. (2011). Viewing heavy bodies enhances preferences for facial adiposity. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 9(4), 295-308.

Reed, G.W., Hill, J.O. (1996, Feb). Measuring the thermic effect of food. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 63(2), 164-9.

Rhind, S.G., Gannon, G.A., Shephard, R.J., Buguet, A., Shek, P.N., & Radomski, M.W. (2004) Cytokine induction during exertional hyperthermia is abolished by core temperature clamping: neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 20, 5, 503-516.

Ricci, M.R., Fried, S.K., & Mittleman, K.D. (2000, April). Acute cold exposure decreases plasma leptin in women. Metabolism, 49(4), 421-3.

Richardson, M.B., Li, P., Gohlke, J.M., & Allison, D.B. (2018, Dec). Effects of Indoor Thermal Environment on Human Food Intake, Productivity, and Comfort: Pilot, Randomized, Crossover Trial. Obesity (Silver Spring), 26(12), 1826-1833. doi: 10.1002/oby.22328. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Ricquier, D., & Kader, J.C. (1976, Dec). Mitochondrial protein alteration in active brown fat: a soidum dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic study. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 73(3), 577-83.

Rideout, V., Foehr, U. & Roberts, D. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8-to-18 year olds. (PDF, 2.73MB) Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Family Foundation

Ring, L. E., & Zeltser, L. M. (2010) Disruption of hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice leads to early-onset obesity, but physiological adaptations in mature animals stabilize adiposity levels. J. Clin. Invest, 120, 2931-2941.

Roberts, L.A., Raastad, T., Markworth, J.F., et al. (2015). Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training. J Physiol, 593(18), 4285-4301. doi:10.1113/JP270570

Robinson, J., & Nelson, W.C. (1995). National Human Activity Pattern Survey Data Base. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Rolfe, D.F., (1997). Brown GCCellular energy utilization and molecular origin of standard metabolic rate in mammals. Physiol Rev, 77(3), 731-58.

Rousseau, C., Bourbouloux, E., Campion, L., et al. (2006). Brown fat in breast cancer patients: analysis of serial (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 33, 785-791.

Rowell, L.B., Brengelmann, G.L., Blackmon, J.R., Twiss, R.D., & Kusumi, F. (1968). Splanchnic blood flow and metabolism in heat-stressed man. J. Appl. Physiol, 24, 475-484.

Ruff, C.B. (1994). Morphological adaptation to climate in modern and fossil hominids. Am J Phys Anthropol 37, 65-107.

Samuel, V.T., & Shulman, G.I. (2012). Mechanisms for insulin resistance: common threads and missing links, Cell 148, 852-871.

Sawka, M.N., & Wenger, C.B. (1998). Physiologic response to acute exercise heat stress. In: Gonzalez RR, editor. Human Performance Physiology and Environmental Medicine at Terrestrial Extremes. IN: Benchmark Press, 97-151.

Sawka, M.N., Pandolf, K.B., Avellini, B.A., & Shapiro, Y. (1983). Does heat acclimation lower the rate of metabolism elicited by muscular exercise? Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 54, 27-31.

Sawka, M.N., Wenger, C.B., Pandolf, K.B. (1996). Thermoregulatory responses to acute exercise-heat stressand heat acclimation. Environmental Physiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 4, 157-185.

Schapp, L.A., Plijm, S.M.F., Deeg, D.J. & Visser, M. (2006). Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (Sarcopenia) and strength. American Journal of Medicine; 199, U82-U90.

Schreider, E. (1950). Geographical distribution of the body-weight/body-surface ratio. Nature 165, 286.

Schreider, E. (1951). Anatomical factors of body-heat regulation. Nature, 167, 823-824.

Schroer, S.E. (2001). Nudists in the Know: Investigating Social Assumptions of a Clothed Society. Master’s Theses, 3374.

Seidell, J.C., Muller, D.C., Sorkin, J.D., & Andres, R. (1992). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio and resting metabolic rate as predictors of weight gain: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 16, 667-674.

Semenza, J.C., Rubin, C.H., Falter, K.H., Selanikio, J.D., Flanders, W.D., Howe, H.L., & Wilhelm, J.L. (1996). Heat-related deaths during the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago. N Engl J Med 335(2), 84-90.

Serrat, M.A., King, D., & Lovejoy, C.O. (2008). Temperature regulates limb length in homeotherms by directly modulating cartilage growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(49), 19348-19353.

Shapiro, Y., & Seidman, D.S. (1990). Field and clinical observations of exertional  heat stroke patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 22, 6-14.

Sheen, J.H., Zoncu, R., Kim, D., & Sabatini, D.M. (2011, May). Defective Regulation of Autophagy upon Leucine Deprivation Reveals a Targetable Liability of Human Melanoma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. Cancer Cell, 19(5), 613-628.

Shorten, A.L., Wallman, K.E., & Guelfi, K.J. (2009, Nov). Acute effect of environmental temperature during exercise on subsequent energy intake in active men. Am J Clin Nutr, 90(5), 1215-21.

Shulman, D.I., Frane, J., & Lippe, B. (2013). Is there ‘seasonal’ variation in height velocity in children treated with growth hormone? Data from the National Cooperative Growth Study. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol, 2.

Sim, A.Y., Wallman, K.E., Fairchild, T.J., & Guelfi, K.J. (2014, Mar). High-intensity intermittent exercise attenuates ad-libitum energy intake. Int J Obes (Lond), 38(3), 417-22.

Smith,  G., & King, S. (2009). Naturism and sexuality: Broadening our approach to sexual wellbeing. Health and Place, 15, 439-446.

Sohmiya, M., Kanazawa, I., & Kato, Y. (2004). Seasonal changes in body composition and blood HbA1c levels without weight change in male patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. Diabetes Care, 27, 1238-1239.

Somboonwong, J,, Chutimakul, L., & Sanguanrungsirikul, S. (2015). Core temperature changes and sprint performance of elite female soccer players after a 15-minute warm-up in a hot-humid environment. J Strength Cond Res, 29(1), 262-269.

Speakman, J., & Heidari-Bakavoli, S. (2016). Type 2 diabetes, but not obesity, prevalence is positively associated with ambient temperature. Sci Rep 6, 30409.

Spealman, C.R., Yamamato, W., Bixby, E.W., & Newton, M. (1948). Observations on energy metabolism and water balance of men subjected to warm and cold environments. Am. J. Physiol, 152, 233-241.

Spurr, G.B., Hutt, B.K., & Horvath, S.M. (1957). Shivering, oxygen consumption and body temperature in acute exposure of men to two different cold environments. Journal of Applied Physiology,11, 58-64.

Stadnyk, A.M.J., Rehrer, N.J., Handcock, P.J., Meredith-Jones, K.A., & Cotter, J.D. (2017). No clear benefit of muscle heating on hypertrophy and strength with resistance training. Temperature, 5(2), 175-183.

Steegmann, A.T. (2007). Human cold adaptation: An unfinished agenda. Am J Hum Biol, 19, 218-227.

Stein, H.J., Bader, R.A., Eliot, J.W., & Bass, D.E. (1949).  Hormonal alterations in men exposed to heat and cold stress. J. Clin. Endocrinol, 9, 1949, 529-547.

Stenzel, L., Saha, L., & Guareschi, P. (2006). To be fat or thin? Social representations of the body among adolescent female students in Brazil. International Education Journal, 7, 611-31.

Story, M.D. (1987). A comparison of social nudists and non-nudists on experience with various  sexual outlets. The Journal of Sex Research, 23(2), 197-211.

Stroebele, N., & De Castro, J.M. (2004). Effect of ambience on food intake and food choice. Nutrition, 20(9), 821-38.

Sturkenboom, M.G.G., Franssen, E.J.F., Berkhof, J., & Hoekstra, O.S. (2004). Physiological uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in the neck and upper chest region: are there predictive characteristics? Nucl Med Commun, 25, 1109-1111.

Summers, C.M., & Valentine, R.J. (2020). Acute Heat Exposure Alters Autophagy Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes. Front Physiol, 10, 1521. doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.01521

Sumner, F.B. (1909). Some effects of external conditions upon the white mouse. J Exp Zool, 7, 97-155.

Svendsen, P.F., Jensen, F.K., Holst, J.J., Haugaard, S.B., Nilas, L., & Madsbad, S. (2012). The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women. Scand J Clin Lab Invest, 72(5), 410.

Swami, V. (2015). Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image. Psychiatry Research, 235, 128-132.

Syme, D.A. (2006). Functional properties of skeletal muscle. In RE Shad-wick, GV Lauder, eds, Fish Physiology: Fish Biomechanics, Series Ran-dall DJ, Farrell AP, edsVol 23. Academic Press, Elsevier, 179-224.

Szego, C.M., & White, A. (1948). The influence of purified growth hormone on fasting metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 8, 594.

Thalange, N.K., Foster, P.J., Gill, M.S., Price, D.A., & Clayton, P.E. (1996). Model of normal prepubertal growth. Arch Dis Child, 75, 427-431.

Thompson, G.E. (1977). Physiological Effects of Cold Exposure. Environmental Physiology II, 15, 29-69.

Tikuisis, P. & Giesbrecht, G.G. (1999), Prediction of shivering heat production from core and mean skin temperatures. European Journal of Applied Physiology,79, 221-229.

Tillmann, V., Thalange, N.K., Foster, P.J., Gill, M.S., Price, D.A., & Clayton, P.E. (1998). The relationship between stature, growth, and short-term changes in height and weight in normal prepubertal children. Pediatr Res, 44, 882-886.

Tomasik, P.J., Sztefko, K., & Pizon, M. (2005, Mar). The effect of short-term cold and hot exposure on total plasma ghrelin concentrations in humans. Horm Metab Res, 37(3), 189-90.

Toth, M.H., Mattews, D.E., Tracy, R.P. &  Previs, M.J. (2005). Age-related differences in skeletal muscle protein synthesis: relation to markers of immune activation. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, 288, E883-E891.

Trautmann, J., Lokken-Worthy, S., & Lokken, K.L. (2007). Body dissatisfaction, bulimic symptoms, and clothing practices among college women. J Psychol, 141, 485-98.

Trayhurn, P. (2003). THERMOGENESIS. in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition).

Treuth, M.S., Butte, N.F., & Sorkin, J.D. (2003). Predictors of body fat gain in nonobese girls with a familial predisposition to obesity. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 78, 1212-1218.

Troop, N.A. (2016). The effect of current and anticipated body pride and shame on dietary restraint and caloric intake. Appetite, 1(96):375-382.

Tseng, C.Y., Lee, J.P., Tsai, Y.S., et al. (2013). Topical cooling (icing) delays recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res. 27(5), 1354-1361.

Ueda, S.Y., Yoshikawa, T., Katsura, Y., Usui, T., & Fujimoto, S. (2009, Dec). Comparable effects of moderate intensity exercise on changes in anorectic gut hormone levels and energy intake to high intensity exercise. J Endocrinol, 203(3), 357-64.

Uehara, K., Goto, K., Kobayashi, T., Kojima, A., Akema, T., Sugiura, T., Yamada, S.,Ohira, Y., Yoshioka, T., & Aoki, H. (2004). Heat-stress enhances proliferative potential in rat soleus muscle. Jpn J Physiol, 54(3), 263-71.12.

Ulrich, R., Simons, R., Losito, B., Fiorito, E., Miles, M., & Zelson M. (1991). Stress Recovery during Exposure to Natural and Urban Environments. J. Environ. Psychol, 11, 201-230.

Valdés, S., Doulatram-Gamgaram, V., Lago, A., García Torres, F., Badía-Guillén, R., Olveira, G., Goday, A., Calle-Pascual, A., Castaño, L., Castell, C., Delgado, E., Menendez, E., Franch-Nadal, J., Gaztambide, S., Girbés, J., Gomis, R., Ortega, E., Galán-García, J.L., Aguilera-Venegas, G., Soriguer, F., & Rojo-Martínez, G. (2019, May). Ambient temperature and prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance in the Spanish population: Diabetes study. Eur J Endocrinol, 180(5):273-280.

van der Lans, A.A., Hoeks, J., Brans, B., et al. Cold acclimation recruits human brown fat and increases nonshivering thermogenesis. J Clin Invest, 123, 3395-3403.

van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, et al. (2009). Cold-Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Healthy Men. N Engl J Med, 360, 1500-1508.

van Ooijen, A.M.J., van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D., van Steenhoven, A.A., Westerterp, K.R. (2004). Seasonal changes in metabolic and temperature responses to cold air in humans. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 545-553.

Vartanian, L.R., Trewartha, T., Vanman, E.J. (2016). Disgust predicts prejudice and discrimination toward individuals with obesity. J Appl Soc Psychol, 46, 369-75.

Vartanian, L.R. (2010). Disgust and perceived control in attitudes towards obese people. Int J Obes, 34, 1302-7.

Veldhuis, J.D., Roemmich, J.N., Richmond, E.J., & Bowers, C.Y. (2006). Somatotropic and gonadotropic axes linkages in infancy, childhood, and the puberty adult transition. Endocr Rev, 27, 101-140.

Veldhuis JD. (2008). Aging and hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis: gonadotropic axis in men and somatotropic axes in men and women. Ageing Research Reviews. 7, 189-208.

Virtanen, K.A., Lidell, M.E., Orava, J., et al. (2009). Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults. N Engl J Med, 360, 1518-1525.

Virtanen, K.A., Lidell, M.E., Orava, J., Heglind, M., Westergren, R., Niemi, T., Taittonen, M., Laine, J., Savisto, N.J., Enerbäck, S., & Nuutila, P. (2009). Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults. N Engl J Med. 360(15), 1518-25.

Visscher, T.L., & Seidell, J.C. (2004). Time trends (1993–1997) and seasonal variation in body mass index and waist circumference in the Netherlands. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord, 28, 1309-1316.

Visser, M., Pahor, M., Taaffe, D.R., Goodpaster, B.H., Simonsick, E.M., Newman, A.B. et al. (2002). Relationship of interluekin-6 and tumor necrosis factor- with muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly men and women The health ABC study. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 57, M326-M332.

Voss, J.D., Masuoka, P., Webber, B.J., Scher, A.I., Atkinson, R.L. (2013). Association of elevation, urbanization and ambient temperature with obesity prevalence in the United States. Int J Obes (Lond), 37(10), 1407-12.

Watanobe, H., & Habu, S. (2002). Leptin regulates growth hormone-releasing factor, somatostatin, and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone but not neuropeptide Y release in rat hypothalamus in vivo: relation with growth hormone secretion. J Neurosci, 22(14), 6265-6271.

Weaver, M.E., & Ingram, D.L. (1969). Morphological changes in swine associated with envi- ronmental temperature. Ecology 50, 710-713.

Weinsier, R.L., Nelson, K.M., Hensrud, D.D., Darnell, B.E., Hunter, G.R., & Schutz, Y. (1995). Metabolic predictors of obesity. Contribution of resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and fuel utilization to four-year weight gain of post-obese and never-obese women. The Journal of clinical investigation, 95, 980-985. [PubMed: 7883999]

Well, J.C. et al. (2019). Beyond Bergman’s rule” Global variability in human body composition is associated with annual average precipitation and annual temperature volatility. Am J Phys Anthropol, 170, 75-87.

Wells, J.C. (2000). Environmental temperature and human growth in early life. J Theor Biol204(2), 299-305. doi:10.1006/jtbi.2000.2015

Wells, J.C.K. (2012). Ecogeographical associations between climate and human body composition: analyses based on anthropometry and skin folds. Am J Phys Anthropol 47, 169-186.

Wells, C., & Horvath, S. M. (1974). Metabolic and thermoregulatory responses of women to exercise in two thermal environments. Med. Sci. Sports, 6, 8-13.

Wernbom, M., Augustsson, J. & Thome. ́E.R. (2007). The Influence of Frequency, Intensity, Volume and Mode of Strength Training on Whole Muscle Cross-Sectional Area in Humans. Sports Medicine, 37(3), 225-264.

West, K. (2020, Jun). I Feel Better Naked: Communal Naked Activity Increases Body Appreciation by Reducing Social Physique Anxiety. J Sex Res. 5, 1-9.

West, K. (2018). Naked and Unashamed: Investigations and Applications of the Effects of Naturist Activities on Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction. J Happiness Stud, 19, 677-697.

Westerterp, K.R. (2019). Seasonal variation in body mass, body composition and activity-induced energy expenditure: a long-term study. Eur J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1038/s41430-019-0408-y

Weyer, C., Snitker, S., Rising, R., Bogardus, C., & Ravussin, E. (1999, July). Determinants of energy expenditure and fuel utilization in man: effects of body composition, age, sex, ethnicity and glucose tolerance in 916 subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 23(7), 715-22.

White, L.J., Dressendorfer, R.H., Holland, E., McCoy, S.C., & Ferguson, M.A. (2005). Increased caloric intake soon after exercise in cold water. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 15(1), 38-47.

Whitham, M., Laing, S.J., Jackson, A., Maassen, N., & Walsh, N.P. (2007). Effect of exercise with and without a thermal clamp on the plasma heat shock protein 72 response. J Appl Physiol, 103, 1251-1256.

Wong, M.H., Holst, C., Astrup, A., Handjieva-Darlenska, T., Jebb, S.A., Kafatos, A., Kunesova, M., Larsen, T.M., Martinez, J.A., Pfeiffer, A.F., van Baak, M.A., Saris, W.H., McNicholas, P.D., Mutch, D.M., DiOGenes. (2012). Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain. PLoS One, 7(8), e42858.

Wylie, J. (2007). Depths, Landscape, London, Routledge.

Okada, Y., Miyai, K., Iwatsubo, H., Kumahara, Y.  (1970, March). Human Growth Hormone Secretion in Normal Adult Subjects During and After Exposure to Cold. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 30(3), 393-395.

Yi, J., He, G., Yang, J., Luo, Z., Yang, X., & Luo, X. (2017). Heat Acclimation Regulates the Autophagy-Lysosome Function to Protect Against Heat Stroke-Induced Brain Injury in Mice. Cell Physiol Biochem, 41(1), 101-114. doi:10.1159/000455979

Yoneshiro, T., Aita, S., Matsushita, M., et al. (2013). Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humans. J Clin Invest, 123, 3404-3408.

Yoon, S.J., Lee, M.J., Lee, H.M., & Lee, J.S. (2017). Effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women. Aging Clin Exp Res, 29(5), 977-984. doi:10.1007/s40520-016-0685-4

Yu, J., Ouyang, Q., Zhu, Y., Shen, H., Cao, G., & Cui, W. (2012, Apr). A comparison of the thermal adaptability of people accustomed to air-conditioned environments and naturally ventilated environments. Indoor Air, 22(2), 110-8.

Yu, S., Qualls-Creekmore, E., Rezai-Zadeh, K., Jiang, Y., Berthoud, H.-R., Morrison, C. D., et al. (2016). Glutamatergic preoptic area neurons that express leptin receptors drive temperature-dependent body weight homeostasis. J. Neurosci. 36, 5034-5046.

Yu, X., Li, W., Ma, Y., Tossell, K., Harris, J. J., Harding, E. C., et al. (2019). GABA and glutamate neurons in the VTA regulate sleep and wakefulness. Nat. Neurosci. 22, 106-119.

Zaccardi, F., Laukkanen, T., Willeit, P., Kunutsor, S.K., Kauhanen, J., Laukkanen, J.A. (2017). Sauna Bathing and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study. Am J Hypertens, 30, 1120-1125.

Zak, R.B., Shute, R.J., Heesch, M.W., et al. (2017). Impact of hot and cold exposure on human skeletal muscle gene expression. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 42(3), 319-325. doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0415

Zhang, P., Liang, X., Shan, T., Jiang, Q., Deng, C., Zheng, R., & Kuang, S. (2015, July). mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 463(1-2), 102-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.05.032. Epub 2015 May 18.

Zhang, Y., Kerman, I.A., Laque, A., Nguyen, P., Faouzi, M., Louis, G. W., et al. (2011). Leptin-receptor-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and median preoptic area regulate sympathetic brown adipose tissue circuits. J. Neurosci. 31, 1873-1884.

Zhao, Y., et al., (2009). Induction of macroautophagy by heat. Mol Biol Rep, 36(8), 2323-7.

Zoico, E., Rubele, S., De Caro, A., et al. (2019). Brown and Beige Adipose Tissue and Aging. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)10, 368.